• Satellites in geostationary orbit are utilized.

  • These satellites remain in a fixed position above the Earth’s surface providing a permanent communications link.

  • A signal can be transmitted from a point on the Earth’s surface directly to the satellite.

  • The signal is then amplified at the satellite.

  • And re-transmitted to another distant point on the Earth’s surface.


ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using microwaves to transmit telecommunications signals over land.

  • Advantage – no need for the disruption caused by burying cables underground.

  • Disadvantage – need line of sight for transmission so obstructions (e.g. buildings) are a problem.

Introduction of computer controlled digital telecommunications improved telecommunications systems.

  • Greatly reduced call connection times

  • More reliable connections

  • Increased network related information can be passed leading to new applications and services