I)Flat organizational structures have replaced tall structures.
- Tall structures were a result of the classic approach and emphasized a limited span of control.
- They were criticized as several levels of vertical communication removed senior Management too far away from the “shop-floor”.
- Flat structures were recommended to take advantage of informal relationships.
- The problem is that they require much better coordination and control and may Result in overload at the top of the structure.
- Seen as most appropriate for small organizations and those operating in an Uncertain environment.
ii) There has been a move away from specialization.
- A move away from specialized departments to wide ranging and integrated Departments have been encouraged.
- The theory is that this gives individuals greater opportunity for growth, challenge and responsibility.
iii) There is increased worker participation.
- Theory states that higher educational levels among workers means they are capable of and want greater participation in decision making.
- The benefits are stated as increased productivity, increased commitment to the Organization and reduced conflict.
- Opponents say that the benefits are not always achieved and that decision making time is increased and responsibility becomes blurred.
iv) Informal structures are recognized.
- Formal organization is the defined tasks, roles, control structures, etc in an Organization.
- Informal organization builds up as a result of the social relations between staff.
- It helps individuals and groups exert control over their work situation.